Let’s start with C14.
Carbon Dating – What is it and how does it work?
This is how carbon dating works: Carbon is a naturally abundant element found in the atmosphere, in the earth, in the oceans, and in every living creature. C-12 is by far the most common isotope, while only about one in a trillion carbon atoms is C-14. C-14 is produced in the upper atmosphere when nitrogen-14 (N-14) is altered through the effects of cosmic radiation bombardment (a proton is displaced by a neutron effectively changing the nitrogen atom into a carbon isotope). The new isotope is called “radiocarbon” because it is radioactive, though it is not dangerous. It is naturally unstable and so it will spontaneously decay back into N-14 after a period of time. It takes 5760 years for half of a sample of radiocarbon to decay back into nitrogen. It takes another 5760 for half of the remainder to decay, and then another 5760 for half of what’s left then to decay and so on. The period of time that it takes for half of a sample to decay is called a “half-life.”
Radiocarbon oxidises (that is, it combines with oxygen) and enters the biosphere through natural processes like breathing and eating. Plants and animals naturally incorporate both the abundant C-12 isotope and the much rarer radiocarbon isotope into their tissues in about the same proportions as the two occur in the atmosphere during their lifetimes. When a creature dies, it ceases to consume more radiocarbon while the C-14 already in its body continues to decay back into nitrogen. So, if we find the remains of a dead creature whose C-12 to C-14 ratio is half of what it’s supposed to be (that is, one C-14 atom for every two trillion C-12 atoms instead of one in every trillion) we can assume the creature has been dead for about 5760 years (since half of the radiocarbon is missing, it takes about 5760 years for half of it to decay back into nitrogen). If the ratio is a quarter of what it should be (one in every four trillion) we can assume the creature has been dead for 11520 years (two half-lives). After about 10 half-lives, the amount of radiocarbon left becomes too minuscule to measure and so this technique isn’t useful for dating specimens which died more than 60 000 years ago. Another limitation is that this technique can only be applied to organic material such as bone, flesh, or wood. It can’t be used to date rocks directly.
Carbon Dating – The Premise
Carbon dating is a dating technique predicated upon three things: 1: The rate at which the unstable radioactive C-14 isotope decays into the stable non-radioactive N-14 isotope. 2: The ratio of C-12 to C-14 found in a given specimen.3: The ratio C-12 to C-14 found in the atmosphere at the time of the specimen’s death.
Carbon Dating – The Controversy
Carbon dating is controversial for a couple of reasons. First of all, it is predicated upon a set of questionable assumptions. We have to assume, for example, that the rate of decay (that is 5760 year half-life) has remained constant throughout the unobservable past. However, there is strong evidence which suggests that radioactive decay may have been greatly accelerated in the unobservable past. We must also assume that the ratio of C-12 to C-14 in the atmosphere has remained constant throughout the unobservable past (so we can know what the ratio was at the time of the specimen’s death). And yet we know that “radiocarbon is forming 28-37% faster than it is decaying” which means it hasn’t yet reached equilibrium, which means the ratio is higher today than it was in the unobservable past. We also know that the ratio decreased during the industrial revolution due to the dramatic increase of CO2 produced by factories. This man-made fluctuation wasn’t a natural occurrence, but it demonstrates the fact that fluctuation is possible and that a period of natural upheaval upon the earth could greatly affect the ratio. Volcanoes spew out CO2 which could just as effectively decrease the ratio. Specimens which lived and died during a period of intense volcanism would appear older than they really are if they were dated using this technique. The ratio can further be affected by C-14 production rates in the atmosphere, which in turn is affected by the amount of cosmic rays penetrating the earth atmosphere. The amount of cosmic rays penetrating the earth atmosphere is itself affected by things like the earth’s magnetic field which deflects cosmic rays. Precise measurements taken over the last 140 years have shown a steady decay in the strength of the earth’s magnetic field. This means there’s been a steady increase in radiocarbon production (which would increase the ratio). Scientists from Stanford and Purdue university have discovered that the speed by which radioactive material decay is changing, but the explanation they have is even stranger than the change itself. The sun spits out an unknown particle which influences the rate of decay, our schoolbooks tell us that it is one of nature’s constants. It turns out that the speed by which radio isotopes decay is not constant at all and even changes with the seasons. That is the reason why they suspect that the cause is the sun. They noticed that the decay varies over a period of 33 days, a period equal to the time in which the centre of the sun makes a rotation.
Rock strata is looked at to find radioactive particles such as uranium. When it decays it turns into nonradioactive lead. So they looked at the amount of lead knowing the decay rate gives them an idea of the time/age of the rock. That is the theory. In truth there are 3 assumptions, 1; all lead was uranium, but there is no reason not to assume that some lead was already in the rock when it was formed. This would mean that the rock is younger than suspected. Uranium also dissolves in water, uranium salts. For instance, a major flood would cause the calculated age to be far too high. Less than 200 years ago a volcanic eruption happened on Hawaii. The lava ended up being under water. Dating was done by the kalium argon method and they expected the age to be 200 years. The test result showed it to be 22 million years. The kalium salts leaked away into the water and made it looked to be much older than it really was.
During sun spots these rates change as well. So how old is the earth? Another that alters the rate is the reversal of the earth magnetic field. Those of you who are interested in free energy should pay close attention. The principles at work here are the same and can be used for instance, in the work of all those who have found a way to get free energy, the car battery, the engine running on water to name a few.
Did any of you notice the duration or half time of C14 is equal to the cycle of eternity 576.0 years and equal to the circumference of the eight explained throughout the site.
Ancient myth speaks of a black sun in the middle of our galaxy. Nowadays we call it a black(w)hole. Its field spans the whole galaxy. On a smaller scale our sun does the same and its field affects the planets around it, on an even smaller scale, the electron. This force field keeps every atom in its spin, or this is what scientist think. But the truth is that in the centre of the atom, sun, black(w)hole and even you there is a point. A singularity that is the cause of all in the visual world. The world of matter. Taping into this energy means that through it you are also connected to the centre of the galaxy. The so called black sun and its field reaching to its outer boundaries which affects all the smaller scale fields within it. This centre and that of all other levels creates a force field that has two mirrors, “rotating” fields. This electrical/magnetic field creates the 8. In its centre is the regulator. On the highest scale you will find truth and everlasting life. But it is not a simple field of energy. Its complexity and creation-al power is the cause of all that is, has been and will be.
The centre that is at the same time all within its field. It is no wonder that this knowledge was and is the greatest treasure. The alchemist stories speak of it. It would make you masters of the world and eventually of yourself and your re-connection to the centre of centre, God.
Moshiya van den Broek